Sweden's dissatisfaction with the result led to fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories in the course of the following century, such as the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743), and the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790). So taken as a whole an interesting read and worth the £20 or so, useful to anyone new to the period and the Swedish army, less so to anyone who has read a great deal about the conflict. Finland was returned to Sweden, while Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia were ceded to Russia. [38], Since treaty of Frederiksborg in early 1720 Sweden was no longer in war with Denmark which allowed more forces to be placed against the Russians. [29], Hanover-Great Britain and Brandenburg-Prussia thereupon negotiated separate peace treaties with Sweden, the treaties of Stockholm in 1719 and early 1720, which partitioned Sweden's northern German dominions among the parties. [17], Charles XII of Sweden first focused on attacking Denmark. The outbreak of war in 1700 forced Sweden to expand its already large army. Tacitus.nu, Örjan Martinsson. The Ottoman empire defeated the Russian army in the Pruth River Campaign, but the peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position. Unfortunately, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns. Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended with the destruction of the main Swedish army at Poltava (now in Ukraine), and Charles's exile in Ottoman Bender. [31] In 1712 started first Russian campaign to capture Finland under command of General Admiral Fyodor Apraksin. There under protection of the Russian battlefleet the Russian galley fleet was split into three groups. In November, the Russian and Swedish armies met at the First Battle of Narva where the Russians suffered a crushing defeat.[19]. A smaller Russian force advanced on the Swedish capital, but was stopped at the battle of Stäket on 13 August. A description of the Army as it was at the time of the outbreak of the war in 1700, as well as the system of fortresses around the Baltic Sea is provided. Over 11,000 men were evacuated but more than 5000 horses were slaughtered, which crippled the mobility and offensive capability of the Swedish army in Finland for several years. These became known as Kronstadt and Kronslot. Charles was then confined at Timurtash and Demotika; later he abandoned his hopes for an Ottoman front and returned to Sweden in a 14-day ride. In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, and the Age of Liberty began. Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Peter I demanded Charles's eviction, and when the sultan refused, Peter decided to force it by invading the Ottoman Empire. Raiding continued for a month and devastated amongst others the towns of Norrtälje, Södertälje, Nyköping and Norrköping and almost all buildings in the archipelago of Stockholm were burned. George I of the House of Hanover, elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and, since 1714, king of Great Britain and of Ireland, took the opportunity to connect his landlocked German electorate to the North Sea. Sweden had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century, and ceased to be a major power. The Swedish navy was able to outmaneuver the Danish Sound blockade and deploy an army near the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Donnert, Erich; Europa in der Frühen Neuzeit: Festschrift für Günter Mühlpfordt (1997) (in German). The Great Northern War was fought during the years 1700-1721 between Sweden and a coalition of countries who sought to carve up the Swedish Baltic Sea Empire between themselves. Beside Peter, the principal Russian commanders were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. Charles showed no interest in returning, established a provisional court in his colony, and sought to persuade the sultan to engage in an Ottoman-Swedish assault on Russia. In nearby Greifswald, already lost to Sweden, Russian tsar Peter the Great and British king George I, in his position as Elector of Hanover, had just signed an alliance on 17 (OS)/28 (NS) October. I'm aiming for 8 units of foot in all. On 12 May 1708, a Russian galley fleet made a lightning raid on Borgå and managed to return to Kronslot just one day before the Swedish battlefleet returned to the blockade, after being delayed by unfavourable winds. For parts of the War also Prussia and Hannover joined the enemy coalition.The book describes how the Army was reorganised in the year before the outbreak of the war, with its unique allotment system of recruitment. Kampen mot övermakten. Peter I tried to raise his army's morale to Swedish levels. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony-Poland-Lithuania. Pages : 120 | Images : 8pp colour plates, b/w ills & maps, Paperback - Date of Publication : June 2018 | Size : 248mm x 180mm | ISBN : 9781912390182 | Helion Book Code : HEL0910. His meeting with Peter the Great in Rawa Ruska in September 1698, where the plans to attack Sweden were made, became legendary for its decadence. The Nyen fortress was soon abandoned and demolished by Peter, who constructed nearby a superior fortress as a beginning to the city of Saint Petersburg By 1704, other fortresses were situated on the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its south. Small hastily assembled Swedish coastal squadron met the Russian galley fleet west of Hangö cape in the battle of Gangut and was overpowered by the Russians who had nearly 10 fold superiority. Although it was actually two separate armies with very distinct characters. Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700 - 1721, II. Disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament, Charles crossed into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and decisively defeated the Saxe-Polish forces in the Battle of Klissow in 1702. About 200,000 Swedish: See more ideas about war, swedish army, war art. The strategic situation in the Baltic Sea region in the last 1690s is given, and is then followed up by an analysis of the strategic situation in the early 1720s. The book describes how the Army was reorganised in the year before the outbreak of the war, with its unique allotment system of recruitment. The ruler of the Russian empire: Peter the Great, the King of Danes: Fredrick IV, and the King of Poland-Lithuania: Augustus, had their share of interests in the Swedish empire. Tsardom of Russia establishes itself as a new power in Europe. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[23]. For parts of the War also Prussia and Hannover joined the enemy coalition. He greatly expanded the size of Russia during his reign while providing access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas. In January 1719, George I, August II and emperor Charles VI concluded a treaty in Vienna aimed at the reduction of Russia's frontiers to the pre-war limits. Yet, primarily due to internal conflicts in Great Britain and France, that did not happen. They met stubborn resistance, ran out of supplies and, after reaching the Gulf of Finland west of Kronstadt, had to be evacuated by sea between 10–17 October. There are also uniform schematics. The cost of the warfare proved to be much higher than the occupied countries could fund, and Sweden's coffers, and resources in manpower, were eventually drained in the course of long conflicts. Karl XII: En biografi. [24], Danish Altona burned down during Stenbock's campaign (1713). [citation needed] He preferred the life of an ordinary soldier on horseback, not that of contemporary baroque courts. Frederick William I entered the war as elector of Brandenburg and king in Prussia – the royal title had been secured in 1701. He completed his graduate work at the University of Sheffield, England. He determinedly pursued his goal of dethroning his adversaries, whom he considered unworthy of their thrones due to broken promises, thereby refusing to take several chances to make peace. Uniforms are dealt with very comprehensively with reconstructions by Shamenkov of the Swedish army from 1700 until 1721. The equipment and tactics of the Army are presented, not the least how they developed during the long period of the war. In fact, the Swedish Army never lost a single major land battle until 1709. Peter I had meanwhile recovered and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where he cemented Russia's access to the Baltic Sea by founding Saint Petersburg in 1703. The uniform information comes from Lars-Eric Höglund's book while the strength reports comes from the work by the Swedish General Staff "Karl XII på slagfältet" and Margus Laidre's book "Segern vid Narva". Nicholas Wragg is raising funds for Swedish Army of the Great Northern War by Ebor miniatures on Kickstarter! These terms were laid out in the Treaty of Adrianople (1713). The Norwegian campaigns were halted and the army withdrawn when Charles XII was shot dead while besieging Norwegian Fredriksten on 30 November 1718 (OS). It doesnt for instance stand up in comparison to the Great Northern War compendium, but then its not supposed to. Sweden parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal and Narva, and in a counter-offensive pushed August II's forces through Lithuania and Poland to Saxony, dethroning August on the way and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt. [35], Following this bulk of the Russian forces moved along the coast towards Borgå towards the forces of Lybecker to whom Armfelt had joined. Returning to the group of books that I got at Christmas time I will look at Helion's The Swedish Army In The Great Northern War 1700-21 by Lars Ericson Wolke. On the Swedish side were Holstein-Gottorp, several Polish and Lithuanian magnates under Stanisław Leszczyński (1704–10) and Cossacks under the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1708–10). A Swedish Army for the Great Northern War- Infantry Part 1 I opted to use Roundway and Dixon15mm for this project. Baltikums fall 1700-1710. pp. Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. Earlier attempts to storm Riga had been made in December 1699. It was only on 12 May that Swedish squadron under Admiral Erik Johan Lillie made it to Helsinki but there was nothing it could do. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. Apraksin's forces reached the river but chose not to cross it and instead withdrew back to Vyborg likely due to problems in supply. In view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower, Sweden opted to blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705. Campaigns on the continent had been proposed on the basis that the army would be financially self-supporting through plunder and taxation of newly gained land, a concept shared by most major powers of the period. A range of 28mm metal miniatures of outstanding quality to cover the Swedish Army of the Great Northern War. Augustus II the Strong, elector of Saxony and another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] gained the Polish crown after the death of Jan Sobieski in 1696. [34] Nominally under command of Fyodor Apraksin, but accompanied by Peter the Great, fleet of coastal ships together with 12,000 men of infantry and artillery started the campaign by sailing from Kronstadt on 2 May 1713, further 4000 cavalry were later sent overland to join up with the army. Russia was able to mobilize a larger army, but could not put all of it into action simultaneously. Mazepa died in 1710 in Ottoman exile. Peter I took advantage of this, and was able to redeploy a large number of men from Ingria to the Ukraine.[22]. The negotiations were mediated by French diplomats, who sought to prevent a complete collapse of Sweden's position on the southern Baltic coast and achieved that Sweden was to retain Wismar and northern Swedish Pomerania. The book describes how the Army was reorganized in the year before the outbreak of the war, with its unique allotment s The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. [39], By the time of Charles XII's death, the anti-Swedish allies became increasingly divided on how to fill the power gap left behind by the defeated and retreating Swedish armies. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). Charles remained there until December 1715, escaping only days before Stralsund fell. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the secret Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye and in 1700 the three powers attacked. Fighting in the field, the Swedish army was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. He claimed the throne upon Charles XII's death, but was supplanted by Ulrike Eleonora. Though his primary goal was Moscow, the strength of his forces was sapped by the cold weather (the winter of 1708/09 being one of the most severe in modern European history) and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics. Great Northern War. Pernaja) and constructed fortifications there. Aufbruch zur Moderne. Frederick IV and Augustus II were forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709. By 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties. In 1705, repeated Swedish attacks were made against Russian fortifications in the area, to little effect. In 1697, Danish forces had levelled several of Gottorp's fortresses. Russian fortunes began to reverse in the final years of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. Charles XII refrained from all kinds of luxury and alcohol and usage of the French language, since he considered these things decadent and superflous. Charles XII then turned south to meet his last undefeated opponent: Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Brunswick-Lüneburg forces. Dec 13, 2020 - Explore Foster Wood's board "Great Northern War / Stora Nordiska Kriget", followed by 712 people on Pinterest. George I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715. May 9, 2019 - Explore Chip DuRant's board "Great Northern War", followed by 807 people on Pinterest. Most of the Swedish dominions were partitioned among the coalition members, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. After Charles XII had returned from the Ottoman Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, he initiated two Norwegian Campaigns, starting in February 1716, to force Denmark–Norway into a separate peace treaty. Peter's army was trapped by an Ottoman army at the Pruth river. 240. See more ideas about war, swedish army, history. Apraksin gathered an army of 15,000 men to Vyborg and started the operation in late August. Series : Century of the Soldier 1618-1721 #26, General - Peter the Great, whose forces were spread all around the Baltic Sea, envisioned hegemony in East Central Europe and sought to establish naval bases as far west as Mecklenburg. Poland and Saxony together could mobilize at least 100,000 men. The treaty deprived Russia of direct access to the Baltic Sea. ), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Charles Frederick was married to a daughter of Peter I, Anna Petrovna. Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. The Swedish Army Of The Great Northern War 1700 1721 Author: domain59b115.stackstaging.com Subject: Download The Swedish Army Of The Great Northern War 1700 1721 pdf Keywords: The Swedish Army Of The Great Northern War 1700 1721, The Swedish Army Of The Great Northern War 1700 1721 pdf Created Date: 20201128114002+00'00' For parts of the War Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. This shattering defeat did not end the war, although it decided it. Defenders, however, managed to fend off landing attempts by the attackers until Russians landed to their flank at Sandviken which forced Armfelt to retire towards Borgå after setting afire both the town and all the supplies stored there as well as bridges leading north from the town. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition was re-established and subsequently joined by Hanover and Prussia. Together with rowers from the ships Russians had 20,000 men in their disposal even without the cavalry. Miniature Wargames, DeliveryFrequently Asked QuestionsDownloads inc. Catalogues & Paper SoldiersTrade InformationAuthor GuidelinesTerms & Conditions, Helion & CompanyUnit 8, Amherst Business CentreBudbrooke RoadWarwickCV34 5WE, © 2019 - 2021 Helion & Company Limited & SWD • Legal Info • Terms of Use • Privacy & Cookies, War & Military Culture in South Asia 1757-1947. Peter the Great became Tsar in 1682 upon the death of his elder brother Feodor but did not become the actual ruler until 1689. Later in July 1720 a squadron from Swedish battlefleet engaged the Russian galley fleet in battle of Grengam. Russian breach of the blockade at Hangö forced Swedish fleet to withdraw to prevent Russian galley fleet from reaching Sweden itself. In 1713, Brandenburg-Prussia allied with Russia in the Treaty of Schwedt. He commenced reforming the country, turning the Russian tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy. Russia captured Viborg (ru. Russo-Crimean Wars. Swedish Army regiments are tasked with training conscripts and Home Guard troops. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Russian cavalry managed to link up with the rest of the army there as well. Alarmed by the Russian preparations Lybecker requested naval units to be brought in as soon as possible in the spring of 1713. Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. However, despite great successes on the battlefield, inadequate economy and small manpower caused the demise of the Swedish Empire, which ended its 110-year period as a great power in 1721. For parts of the war, Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. The war ended with Sweden's defeat, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and a major force in European politics. August II resisted, still possessing control of his native Saxony, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Fraustadt in 1706, a battle sometimes compared to the Ancient Battle of Cannae due to the Swedish forces' use of double envelopment, with a deadly result for the Saxon army. Charles XI had tried to keep the empire out of wars, and concentrated on inner reforms such as reduction and allotment, which had strengthened the monarch's status and the empire's military abilities. Instead he initiated a march from Saxony to invade Russia. Under Armfelt's command Swedish army in Finland stopped to engage the advancing Russians at Pälkäne in October 1713 where Russian flanking manoeuvre forced him to withdraw to avoid getting encircled. Petersen (2007), pp. Roundway come with cast on flags which I removed in no time at all with a pair of snips. To place pressure on Sweden Russian sent large fleet in July 1719 to the Swedish east coast. 268–272, 275; Bengtsson (1960), pp. Baskakov, Benjamin I. Russian galley fleet arrived to the area already on 29 June but stayed idle until 26–27 July when under leadership of Peter Russian galleys managed to run the blockade making use of calm weather which immobilized the Swedish battlefleet losing only one galley of his force of roughly 100 galleys. He ended Sweden's exemption from the Sound Dues (transit taxes/tariffs on cargo moved between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea). During the war, the most important Swedish commanders besides Charles XII were his close friend Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, also Magnus Stenbock and Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. Vyborg) in 1710 and successfully held it against Swedish attempts to retake the town in 1711. See more ideas about war, swedish army, military history. Pursued by coalition forces, the Swedish army was trapped and surrendered in the Siege of Tönning. Additionally each regiment can mobilise in times of crisis or war operational battalions for the army's rapid reaction organisation. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga, at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Empire by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia. When Wismar surrendered in 1716, all of Sweden's Baltic and German possessions were lost.[28]. The book also includes a list of all Army units during the 21 years of war. After the setbacks of 1700, he focused on transforming his state, an absolute monarchy, in a manner similar to Charles XI of Sweden. As negotiations for peace did not progress the Russian galleys were once again in 1721 sent to raid Swedish coast targeting primarily the Swedish coast between Gävle and Piteå. Lybecker's army of 7000 infantry and 3000 cavalry avoided contact with the Russians and instead kept withdrawing further inland without even contesting the control of Borgå region or the important coastal road between Helsingfors (Helsinki) and Åbo. The amount of available uniform information varies however for the different regiments and I have been forced to fill in the gaps of knowledge with later information (or earlier in appropriate cases). On 21–22 May 1713 Russian force of 10,000 men landed at Pernå (fi. During the same period Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound (1645; 1658). This is when the enemies of the Swedish empire realized that it was the time to get control of the lands of the Swedish empire. Swedish Uniforms in the Battle of Helsingborg The half newly raised army that defeated the Danes in the battle of Helsingborg 1710 should have looked like the pictures on this page. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. At the battle of Narva the Swedish Regiments probably had the following uniforms and strengths. For parts of the War Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. He is also an avid reenactor and wargamer. In the beginning of the Great Northern War in 1700, Karl XII proved himself a gifted military leader and won devastating victories over his enemies with relentless offensive tactics in battles such as Narva, Düna, Kliszów and Jakobstadt. The Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden and intervened against Peter I. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. Elder brother Feodor but did not become the actual ruler until 1689 foreign interventions in Russia during the same Sweden! Strong ( left ) and Frederick William I of Prussia ( right.... 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